Groundbreaking Study Moves Us Closer to Finding Schizophrenia’s Cause

By Ken Duckworth, M.D. | Jan. 29, 2016

Imaging studies showed C4

Imaging studies showed C4 (in green) located at the synapses of primary human
neurons. Image courtesy of Heather de Rivera (McCarroll lab).

In the scientific journal Nature, researchers from the Broad Institute, Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital, among other sites, found a hypothesis that could be a key cause of schizophrenia. The researchers noted that people who had schizophrenia were more likely to have a certain type of a gene that promotes neural “pruning.”

Pruning is the process of the removal of neurons. In 2014, when I attended the Broad Institute’s announcement of the $650 million gift from Ted Stanley and panel discussion on a study that identified 108 genes associated with schizophrenia, I congratulated Dr. Steve McCarroll on this development. He told me that the papers on Broad’s work connecting genes and mental illness would only get more interesting as we moved forward. This new paper shows he was right.

First, let’s take a look at the hypothesis that the research supports. It has been a point of discussion for years that over or misdirected pruning may be connected with the occurrence of schizophrenia. Pruning is part of normal brain development during childhood, and especially during adolescence. After pruning takes place, new neurons are produced with more efficient functions. In other words, pruning helps the brain develop more superhighways and fewer back roads. Clinically, this hypothesis is also compelling, as the onset of symptoms often occurs in adolescence. However, we haven’t had biological facts that back this idea up—that is, until this study.

The need to understand neural networks—how neurons relate and communicate—has also gained traction in informing our thinking about schizophrenia. Pruning also fits the idea that the network of neurons could be impacted by changes in neuronal architecture. This way of thinking about the relationship of neurons in networks is one reason that we don’t use the term “chemical imbalance” anymore to explain how schizophrenia develops—that is likely far too simple a model.

At my clinic when patients, or their parents, ask me what caused their schizophrenia, I have to tell them that unfortunately we don’t know. I tell them that we think it’s a complex interaction of genes and environment that promote risk at critical stages in brain development, and that it’s pretty theoretical. This paper will most assuredly help improve my answer to this question. Over time I hope that we can understand the mechanism of the treatments we use, and why certain environmental acts like sleep deprivation or the use of stimulants and marijuana can raise the risk for psychosis in vulnerable people.

As I read it, the study does not prove that the pruning hypothesis is correct, but it does add a very compelling point to support it. Since I am a clinician, not a geneticist, my explanation of what was discovered will be rather simple, but what the researchers found is a spot on chromosome 6, called C4, which is a gene that promotes pruning. Subtypes (called alleles) of this chromosome are found in overabundance in association with schizophrenia.

The researchers in the study drew upon a number of biological ideas and pulled them together to make this observation. For example, they found that alleles of C4 have been found to promote neuronal pruning in mice after they are born, and that they are also involved in the development of neuronal networks. How gene structure connects to brain development will be an ongoing and compelling area of inquiry. This paper also represents a new level of cooperation among many types of researchers, which bodes well for our speed of future understanding.

I recall the fear and anxiety that existed when I was on the first AIDS unit in New England as a medical intern in the 1980s. We didn’t know what caused the condition, and that added to our fear, hopelessness and pessimism. It seemed overwhelming and unrealistic to contemplate a biologic solution to this devastating condition. Now, of course, we know the details of the virus and transformative treatments have followed. HIV has gone from a lethal diagnosis to one that can be lived with, and that change started with science on the underlying biological cause.

The brain and our understanding of the causes of schizophrenia will be much more challenging to master than even this complex virus. Making sense of the underlying biological properties that lead to schizophrenia will make a difference in our understanding of the development of the condition. That is the vision that the late Ted Stanley supported when he made a huge donation to the Broad Institute. As our understanding continues to grow, we will find better treatments. This study is another big step in a very long journey. 

Ken Duckworth, M.D., serves as medical director for NAMI. He is double board certified in adult and child and adolescent psychiatry. He has also completed a forensic psychiatry fellowship.

Comments
Johan
You're still not doing enough to rid the world of this horrible disease. What's worse is that some people who are not completely schozophrenic have to live with psychosis and psychotic episodes that fine and go. Basically they are trapped between reality and fantasy and unable to complete the daily tasks that are required in life.
It's frustrating that the only treatments we have were discovered by accident 70 years ago. You would think that if scientists are capable of research like this than somehow they could have developed something better in the meantime. Right now hundreds of thousands of not millions of people are suffering every day with horrible voices, delusions, negative symptoms, anhedonia. When is NAMI going to say enough a enough and find a better treatment that actually works rather than this garbage we have now that zonks people's brains and makes them non compliant. Precious lives are being lost and times wasting. How many more years until we have a more suitable alternative for these illnesses?
2/1/2017 12:30:14 PM

Donna Jean Wright
Anytime I read about any advancement on the cause and treatment of mental illness of Schizophrenia I am encouraged for my son and others.
Thanks to Ted Stanley!
7/28/2016 6:27:38 PM

Betty Cox
Thank you Nami! For all you do. My son was dx with paranoid schizophrenia age 18 and now age 23 with schizoaffective disorder... Both overlap. Stopped his meds however because he is my son and I care for him and love him I will stick through this thick and thin..., but, our society ifs fearful of those who act not like them. I want the public to becomes educated.,, then maybe we'll find betters way to help someone with this devastating consuming dx
3/20/2016 7:57:08 AM

Judith Beck
Edgar Cayce gave readings on schizophrenia and not even once did he suggest a psychiatrist or therapist be consulted. He gave various reasons and treatments for this condition which I know works because it worked for my mother. You can find more information about this at www.edgarcayce.org
3/7/2016 11:14:27 AM

JS LPN
Thank you NAMI and supporters for your answers to this challenging subject. Thank God for the research that is going forward to encourage family members who have children and /or loved ones with schizophrenia or its other disorders. Keep pressing onward!
3/2/2016 7:23:54 PM

Renee
Thank you Nami, for sharing this information. Anything that associated with this illness; is welcomed.
hopefully, we can find a medication that helps with the negative symptoms, along with better meds, with less adverse reactions. I have a son he is now 28,he was diagnosed at 18. Schizo-effective. After various meds, hospital stays, breaks, he is currently stable. The meds he's currently on, wk well for him. He is in enrolled, in community college school, taking a few classes,
Thanks for sharing your story, it lets everyone know, we are not alone.
3/1/2016 7:32:17 PM

Noëlle B
I read about this neuron and genetics hypothesis in 2014. It's nice to see more researchers and 'biological' scientists are finally all agreeing one one thing regarding this horrific desease my boyfriend suffers from. He still has not found tha magic pill or 'blend' for his phychosis after 3+ yrs, of constantly changing his meds, about 10 hospital visits later, (I lost track), and for the most part, I have watched him rapidly lose the last 14yrs of what he had built for himself here. My life has been put off for too long, and I can't possibly leave him like this.. He needs to be part of this research. How does one go about doing this. ASAP, PLEASE, as he is becoming more and more suicidal by the month. Sorry for the rant.
2/27/2016 6:07:06 PM

Cindy Murphy
Thanks to the every person who takes part in helping to understand this life altering illnesses. My God bless and guide you.
2/27/2016 11:03:50 AM

Anne
Not sure I understand how "pruning" operates differently in Schizophrenia,but am grateful for ongoing interest and support for research. I sincerely hope this finding will unravel more concrete answers. Any chance more natural remedies are bei g studied? And I also wondered if there have been studies of quality of life on present medications with side effects ( real data).
2/27/2016 10:52:11 AM

Elaine Green
Good to hear of this research for understanding & hope for those who suffer . My son at 31 diagnosed with schizo-efficient . At one point he was on heavy doses of meds , which involved a life of being asleep 80% of the day. At 34 he takes no meds and as of today he has an improved life (still living with husband & I) . He appears to be controlling/calming himself with daily smoking of marjuarnia :-( !!?His daily functioning has improved 85% and has future plan to try and live by himself . Pray to God Almighty the great Redeemer , Healer for my son to experiencie & achieve hope and a life of with purpose.
2/27/2016 8:45:24 AM

Mitchell Beck
Suppose you have 10 gallons of blue water and every day you drain off 1 gallon and add 1 gallon of clear water. The question is how many days would it take until all the blueness is gone? The solution to this problem is given by raising the percentage of original blue water remaining by the power of time. After only 7 days the amount of blue water will be reduced by more than one-half. After 30 days, the amount of blue water remaining will be reduced by more than 95% and this approximates the rate of turnover of H2O in the human body. The brain is almost 75% water.

What does that mean? That means that the H2O in my brain now is not the same H2O as was there a heartbeat ago, but that all the molecules of my body are continually being replaced and the ones that were there before have simply gone away! That is what can REMEMBER what was going on in my mind 55 years ago, a mind that has long ago been replaced. So where are tomorrow’s misty water-colored memories of the way we were? I don’t know but you can be sure they aren’t stored in the brain. You need only to compare the duration of memory to the rate of transfer of molecules in the brain to conclude the memories that light the corners of our minds arise not from our material brains but from somewhere else. What I personally believe is memory arises from my eternal soul and that soul is timeless, weightless, conscious, willful, creative, and intelligent, and immaterial. I remember and therefore I was, I am, and I will be.
2/27/2016 5:39:05 AM

Mitchell Beck
I was labeled a schizophrenic nearly 40 years ago. They accused me of having false beliefs, unreal perceptions, and paranoia. They even tried to tell me I was so delusional that I suffered from a condition known as “anosognosia” which literally means “to know not of a disease." Over and over again they told me I suffered from a lack of any fundamental awareness or insight into my supposed mental condition. Now I find out they have isolated a gene that may be related to the condition which I deny having but which they say I have. They discovered it by, get this, studying the brains of CORPSES and WHITE RATS. How morbid is that?

Maybe a better way to study the mind-body problem is to compare the duration of a human memory to the rate at which molecules are replaced in the brain. Suppose a scientific article says, perhaps, something like this: "The radioactive phosphorus content of the cerebrum of the rat decreases to one-half in a period of two weeks” Now, what does that mean? It means that phosphorus that is in the brain of a rat (and also in mine, and yours) is not the same phosphorus as it was two weeks ago, but that all the atoms that are in the brain are being replaced, and the ones that were there before have simply gone away! So what is this mind, what are these atoms with consciousness? Last week’s potatoes! That is what can REMEMBER what was going on in my mind 55 years ago—a mind which has long ago been replaced. With the progression of time, we inhale and we exhale, we drink and we sweat, and we eat and we excrete. Quick, who played the Beaver’s older brother Wally in the old television series Leave It To Beaver? If you answered Tony Dow you would be correct. Now the question is how in the world can you possibly remember that? Most likely you had not even thought of Tony Dow in decades! Don’t try to tell me tomorrow's misty watered-colored memories of the way we were are in our genes. Memories are in in our eternal SOUL.
2/27/2016 4:04:35 AM

Henry Rogers
Has anybody done any looking into possible effects of mercury poisoning, also dear tick disease.
2/26/2016 5:51:07 PM

Ewa Marie Seiler
that was the IQ test. 169 at the age of 5!
2/26/2016 3:46:58 PM

Ewa Marie Seiler
So, where is the study? I would like to read it. Brain damage, excess pruning? My son's IT where 169 at the age of 5. He was reading at the age of 4! The point is that we, the average, cannot understand a genius mind. Thus MI. B.S,
2/26/2016 3:46:08 PM

george ;pope
Groundbreaking Study Moves Us Closer to Finding Schizophrenia’s Cause

There may be a break through here looking at what goes on in the brain, "brain cell pruning" reminds me of  competition between plants in a forest and possibilities for doctors "cultivating" the neurons that help in survival. Better than endless pill zonking and locked doors.
2/26/2016 3:08:25 PM

K.Good
ok - Thank you.
2/26/2016 2:58:30 PM

K.Good
In 1974, within a few weeks of finding out I was pregnant after several miscarriages, I was given injections of Delalutin every week for many weeks to prevent another miscarriage. This drug is now OFF THE MARKET and I cannot find any information about it. Could there be a condition when given when the brain is developing in the womb?
2/26/2016 2:57:50 PM

Jean
Each new discovery brings us closer to managing this horrible disease. I hope that something can be done for adults who refuse treatment and help. It is heartbreaking!
2/26/2016 11:58:07 AM

Michelle Masterson
Thank You! This has been the most comprehensive article on Schizophrenia I have found. I'm the parent of an amazing son thats 21 and recently diagnosed with the disease. What's hard to swallow is that he is on all these medications but nothing takes away from his fixed delusions.

I found in my area where next month is a clinical study being done on Schizophrenia and my son with no money can be seen and get medications for free and be on the cutting edge of new treatments! http://www.cnshealthcare.com/
2/26/2016 9:51:34 AM

Sara Chuluda
Is there any connection between nutrition and schizophrenia? I've been reading information from Dr. Kelly Brogan MD (www.kellybroganmd.com) on how nutrition relates to depression, bipolar and hypothyroidism. I have been on medication for 19 yrs, hospitalized 3 times and I can't believe I was never encouraged by my doctors to focus on nutrition for long term mental health benefits (alongside medication as needed for stabilization).
I am removing dairy from my diet in an experiment to see how it makes me feel. I am not allergic. Dr Brogan suggests removing gluten as well (even if you don't have a "gluten allergy").
2/26/2016 9:35:57 AM

Marilyn Fletcher
My son is 31. At 16 his personality started changing, and my family doctor referred him to a psychiatrist for testing. We found he had schizophrenia. Herb has such a beautiful spirit; at times I can see his cry for help in his eyes. I would like to experience what he goes through. Is there any way that I can do that? Thorugh Christ I have learned to live with the changes day by day, but believe experiencing some of what he goes through would help me understand better.
2/26/2016 9:28:12 AM

Sue Eilers
What's the cure? My son has had schizophrenia for 38 years. That's 38 years of seeing a once beautiful intelligent person submerged in irrational thought. Sure its a brain malfunction (doh)!
2/26/2016 8:58:31 AM

Diana
That is both enlightening and encouraging news. I am the mother of a son with schizophrenia. Thank you for all you do.
2/26/2016 8:00:02 AM

iris matucha
My daughter is 36 and was diagnosed at age 14....medication with less side effects is our only hope. We all realize how complex the brain truly is.
2/26/2016 7:35:47 AM

Patricia
Very informative. Thank you for explaining it so well.
2/26/2016 6:39:57 AM

Judith A. Weinfurtner
I am amazed by such research. I have a diagnosis of schizo-affective disorder. I love NAMASWLA. I advocate for individuals like myself. I am blessed to have lived a long life. My brother also has a diagnosis of schizophrenia, he is now has an addiction.

I love my life and love helping others. I love my life and it God says the same, I will live an old old life. I am a healthy 66 years old.
2/26/2016 6:39:56 AM

Mary
To all who have children with schizophrenia. Find a doctor that will monitor the drug Clozapine. This has turned my sons life around. He still has some anxiety, but the daily torture is gone, and his smoking habit done. I thank his doctor for this.
2/26/2016 6:10:22 AM

Renee
I am so happy that someone is finding more information on this crippling illness. And I pray that they can find the reason behind why people develop Schizophrenia. And then prevent it from developing if possible. Thanks for giving us hope for the future.
2/26/2016 1:45:39 AM

Tara
Do you find a large correlation between schizophrenics and celiac' disease?
2/26/2016 1:41:10 AM

Camille S.
My son suffers from Schizophrenia. So I greatly appreciate when NAMI publishes any new research/studies on causes and insight that can help patients and family support understanding this debilitating, difficult, stressful illness. THANK YOU!
2/26/2016 12:56:17 AM

Claudia Marshall
My brother was diagnosed as schizophrenic as a child. Has he moved through life he became extremely paranoid. He died at the age of 51 at least partly as a result of his paranoia. I'm so thankful for any and all research that helps us to understand this disease.
2/25/2016 11:42:25 PM

Rosa
My daughter was given this diagnosis at two separate mental health hospital during her mania and psychosis state. I research and read of alternatives to meds and was very fortunate to find mega vitamins site and supportive others that had to deal with a mental diagnosis and little hope. Peter's promise site is one of many I visited. I did give my daughter many of the suggested mega vitamins and today her diagnosis has been changed to a one time psychosis event. However, I may be in the two year honeymoon but she is completely off meds, going to school and working. We take it one day at a time now. Keep stress levels know as much as possible in this era. Hope meds do improve as science learns more.
2/25/2016 11:38:40 PM

Sharon Wells
I am not a specialist, however, how do you explain this theory with the fact, that when schizophrenia women, with age do not have anymore their menstruation, they are much better mentally?
2/25/2016 11:24:27 PM

Bonnie
How would schizoaffective disorder relate to these findings, if at all?
This disorder seems to have the same onset age, adolescence.
2/25/2016 10:48:12 PM

Iris
How do you tie in the hypothesis that schizophrenia could be caused by a genetic mutation with the idea of neuron pruning?
2/25/2016 10:41:01 PM

Maricarmen Varela
Thank you for explaining this in lay terms. This gives us new hope.
2/25/2016 9:38:53 PM

Irma
Thank you to the great donation that Ted Stanley did to the research of this mental illness. I have a son who suffers for 9 consecutive years and it is avoiding to have a normal life. I belief that until today he will not understand why he had this condition. I call "condition" because I do not want to tag my son with this horrendous illness that people look at him like normal but he indeed an impaired human being.
2/25/2016 9:37:39 PM

Steve Pitman
We will not find the best treatments for this disease of the brain if we do not look for the causes! We must look!
2/25/2016 9:17:07 PM

Jane Luna
My only son had schizo- affective disorder and was in prison for non violent crimes and died in a violent cell extraction.Please help us keep our sick children out of the prisons and give them help instead of the torture they are going through now. Hold those accountable for the abuses they are putting our families through . Prison is not the treatment for the mentally ill.They need treatment medication and their families.
2/25/2016 8:54:18 PM

June Cummings
Our son was diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia when he was 24 years of age. He is now 57. Though he will most likely not benefit from this research, it is encouraging to read of progress. We will never give up hope!
2/25/2016 8:16:18 PM

Nancy
I first heard of the brain pruning function and thought it could not be just a coincidence that the window for pruning and the window for the first psychotic break are the same. The break varies from individual to individual. Our son is 51 and had his first break at 19. I think the pruning began 3 or 4 years before the break. Possibly some pruning was going on most of his youth because his behavior was always odd. He had the sympton of not being able to integate informaion. He could learn well and was very intelligent but could only deal in absolutes. Math was a good subject for him because 2 and 2 were always 4. He also had a problem with awareness of non verbal cues and dealing with multiple conversations so most of the time could not follow what was going on in a group of people or even the family at dinner. I read research once tha described how chimpanzees with damage to the frontal lobe were unable to bond with their mother and the group.
2/25/2016 8:11:01 PM

Leslie
Great information on this illness!
2/25/2016 8:02:55 PM

tusu
Ann Kolsrud:

"So if schizophrenia occurs at say age 5, does that also suggest the neural pruning did not go on also. So wouldn't this person be really mentally incapacitated by age 47? Then why am I getting a 3.77 in linguistics from the U of I"


No, it's not that pruning would not happen at all. It's that the pruning process is disturbed in some way, so there is too much of it going on at one point, or that it's not removing the right brain cells. It's intended to remove specific brain cells, at specific times in development. And in fact pruning happens mostly at several key points in life, I think that's around 1 1/2, 7-8, teen years, young adulthood.

It's all a very orderly business - well it's supposed to be. Certain parts of the brain SHOULD be pruned and get thin at certain times in development....then along comes the next growth/developmental phase.

And no, you would not continue to lose ability. In most cases of schizophrenia there is one period of time, just a few weeks before the symptoms start, in which brain cells are lost, and that loss stops after a few weeks. Researchers at UCLA several years ago used a new type of MRI (fMRI) to measure that process.

That's why the start of schizophrenia is often very disruptive to a person's life.

Then the brain stabilizes after that point.

Why do you get such good grades in college? Because you're intelligent! Schizophrenia does affect one's brain but it affects each person in different ways - for example some people have trouble reading, others don't, some find their concentration is affected, others do not. Fact is, many people with it continue to have very good lives.
2/25/2016 7:55:16 PM

Carol
My daughter cried basically 24/7 in infancy and also had food allergies. At age 1 1/2 those problems were gone. Then in adolescence after being bullied, the symptoms of schizoaffective disorder became evident.
2/25/2016 7:53:23 PM

Roni A Rave
How exciting to learn new things about the brain! I am curious agnes, why do you think the cause will not be discovered?
2/25/2016 7:42:20 PM

tusu
It's not really about superhighways instead of backroads and having 'better' neurons replace the ones that were pruned. Fact is, at various times during growth, the brain is SUPPOSED to get pruned. That's normal, in fact one can tell the brain is developing neurotypically because the right areas have thinned at the right developmental stage. The problem occurs when the pruning is inadequate, excessive or in the wrong spots or at the wrong times.

But honestly I think that schizophrenia is much more complex than just pruning. From studies I have read, the defects of schizophrenia occur before birth and the pruning later on (at various growth stages, including 1 1/2, 8 or so, adolescence and young adulthood) is related to those earlier defects. Schizophrenia has a very strong developmental component (brain growth before birth).

To the lady who asked if an illness in early life could have caused schizophrenia in her son...no. Extensive research on this matter has shown that infectious illness is not sufficient to account for schizophrenia. There are a few researchers who insist that certain diseases cause schizophrenia (like toxoplasma), but the epidemiological research does not back that up, and before one goes any further...yeah epidemiology needs to back that up.

Any way, mom, don't beat yourself up because your wonderful son has schizophrenia. Just try to gently guide him toward treatment with medication - that's really the foundation of managing that illness.
2/25/2016 7:40:07 PM

Susanne Isom
Thank you, thank you for this great article and thank you, especially, to the researchers to help understand this biological brain disorder.
2/25/2016 7:38:25 PM

Kathie Allen
Thank you for the information! We appreciate it!! What a generous and caring man Ted Stanley was.
2/25/2016 7:32:47 PM

linda delprete,RN
My son with schizophrenia has a sleep disorder originating in the marine corps when he worked security shifts that destroyed his sleeping pattern. He says he does not sleep...could this be a disconnect between REM sleep and awareness of obtaining this level during sleep?
2/25/2016 7:27:29 PM

Dominic
This is eye opening and comforting.
2/25/2016 7:13:48 PM

nanci
Bless you for doing this medical research. There is so much we do not know and want answers so desperately.
2/25/2016 7:05:26 PM

Michael Burke
This is meant to try to explain the other conditions as well on the Schizophrenial Spectrum? Schizotypal Personality Disorder, Schizo Affective Disorder, All of these are also on that Spectrum which is a whole separate Spectrum that the Autistic Spectrum. Often times the person with Schizo Typal Personality Disorder (StPD) can be mistaken for somebody who has Asperger's Syndrome, which is a derivative of the Autistic Spectrum. These conditions have commonalities, they share traits and for that reason they can be misdiagnosed because they look the same. I am somebody who has lived with StPD since being diagnosed in 1987. I have met many people with this condition, talked and clicked like they were good friends. People Do not understand that StPD is a derivative of Schizophrenia and is capable of decompensating to that. Though it is a terminal condition, it can be managed, sometimes with pharma sometimes with counseling. When it comes to this condition, Unlike the profile, I fight the description of it, but I do not deny it. I'm 46 years old. See myself as a success with it? Not at all but having had been there , I know a thing or two about it that doesn't always get to be seen. I know people like myself with this condition and am happy to discuss it with people . I know that does not fit the "profile" of somebody with the condition, but the computer is an "enabler"
2/25/2016 6:41:12 PM

Jeanne Smith
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130710103815.htm
2/25/2016 6:23:48 PM

Alyse King
Sorry, I did not read anything that is groundbreaking or moving us closer to finding a cause. False hope is worse than no hope at all.
2/25/2016 6:21:06 PM

Lori
Having a very sick 21year old son, who was diagnosed at 16 and have not had any luck with meds been on over 10 different medication trials, how is this discovery gonna hep him:(
2/25/2016 6:10:21 PM

Brenda Fox
Thank you to NAMI for all the support and thank you to all those doing research for mental illness.
2/9/2016 1:41:24 PM

PB
Hope for better medication with fewer side effects.
2/7/2016 1:05:20 AM

Anita Manning
Thank you for this clear explanation of the new research and for your insights. I'm excited to know that progress is being made and that we have realistic hope for more breakthroughs in the future.
2/3/2016 12:34:05 PM

Ann Kolsrud
So if schizophrenia occurs at say age 5, does that also suggest the neural pruning did not go on also. So wouldn't this person be really mentally incapacitated by age 47? Then why am I getting a 3.77 in linguistics from the U of I.
2/3/2016 8:11:04 AM

Terri Harris
Excellent news!! Thank you for breaking this discovery down into layman terms so that it is easy to understand!!
2/2/2016 8:52:44 AM

agnes
Personally, I do not believe that any cause will be discovered.
1/31/2016 12:53:52 AM

Deanna
I have a 35year old son with schizophrenia he was born 6weeks earlier due to me having a bladder infection could this have caused his mental illness? He's so bad now and i can't find any help for him he's such a beautiful soul what can you tell me that could help me help him...thank you..
1/30/2016 5:35:39 PM

Norma dennert
I find these findings very encouraging. My son was diagnosed in 1991 in his late 20's and currently is on meds and doing well but has had some struggles over the years.
1/30/2016 1:52:21 PM

Lorraine
So wonderful to read and understand that the new knowledge at every step is going to lead to a future with endless possibilities for all.
1/30/2016 9:39:06 AM

Yolanda Ross
I have been associated with the nami, through out my career.
1/29/2016 7:51:09 PM

Yolanda Ross
Is Eli Lilly aware of this? Sounds like he may need to follow up on this
1/29/2016 7:49:08 PM

Tammi Imel, MA, LMHC
Interesting read!
1/29/2016 6:27:16 PM

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