National Alliance on Mental Illness
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Generic name: risperidone (ris PER i done)
Medication class: Second generation antipsychotic (SGA), atypical antipsychotic
All FDA black box warnings are at the end of this fact sheet. Please review before taking this medication.
What is Risperdal® and what does it treat?
Risperdione is a medication that works in the brain to treat schizophrenia. It is also known as a second generation antipsychotic (SGA) or atypical antipsychotic. Risperidone rebalances dopamine and serotonin to improve thinking, mood, and behavior.
Symptoms of schizophrenia include:
Risperidone may help some or all of these symptoms.
Risperidone is also FDA approved for the following indications:
This medication sheet will focus primarily on schizophrenia. You can find more information about bipolar disorder and autism spectrum disorders at http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness.
What is the most important information I should know about Risperdal®?
Schizophrenia requires long-term treatment. Do not stop taking risperidone, even when you feel better.
Only your healthcare provider can determine the length of risperidone treatment that is right for you.
Missing doses of risperidone may increase your risk for a relapse in your symptoms.
Do not stop taking risperidone or change your dose without talking to with your healthcare provider first.
For risperidone to work properly, the tablet form should be taken everyday as ordered by your healthcare provider.
Are there specific concerns about Risperdal® and pregnancy?
If you are planning on becoming pregnant, notify your healthcare provider to best manage your medications. People living with schizophrenia who wish to become pregnant face important decisions. This is a complex decision since untreated schizophrenia has risks to the fetus, as well as the mother. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of treatment with your doctor and caregivers.
Caution is advised with breastfeeding since risperidone does pass into breast milk.
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Risperdal®?
How should I take Risperdal®?
Risperidone tablets and solution are usually taken 1 or 2 times per day with or without food.
Typically patients begin at a low dose of medicine and the dose is increased slowly over several weeks.
The oral dose usually ranges from 1 mg to 6 mg. The dose of the injection usually ranges from 12.5 mg to 50 mg. Only your healthcare provider can determine the correct dose for you.
Risperidone orally disintegrating tablets must remain in their original packaging. Open the package with clean dry hands before each dose. Do not try to put tablets in a pillbox if you take the orally disintegrating tablets.
Risperidone orally disintegrating tablets will dissolve in your mouth within seconds and can be swallowed with or without liquid.
Risperidone liquid should be measured with a dosing spoon or oral syringe, which you can get from your pharmacy.
Use a calendar, pillbox, alarm clock, or cell phone alert to help you remember to take your medication. You may also ask a family member a friend to remind you or check in with you to be sure you are taking your medication.
The long-acting injection form of risperidone is administered every 2 weeks. Your healthcare provider will administer these injections.
If you miss a dose of risperidone, take it as soon as you remember, unless it is closer to the time of your next dose. Discuss this with your healthcare provider. Do not double your next dose or take more than what is prescribed.
What should I avoid while taking Risperdal®?
Avoid drinking alcohol or using illegal drugs while you are taking risperidone. They may decrease the benefits (e.g. worsen your confusion) and increase adverse effects (e.g. sedation) of the medication.
What happens if I overdose with Risperdal®?
If an overdose occurs call your doctor or 911. You may need urgent medical care. You may also contact the poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.
A specific treatment to reverse the effects of risperidone does not exist.
What are possible side effects of Risperdal®?
Common Side Effects
Low blood pressure, feeling dizzy and increased heart rate, especially when standing up
Fatigue, sleepiness, headache, constipation, and appetite increases are also common and more likely in children than in adults.
Rare Side Effects
Risperidone may increase the blood levels of a hormone called prolactin. Side effects of increased prolactin levels include females losing their period, production of breast milk and males losing their sex drive or possibly experiencing erectile problems. Long term (months or years) of elevated prolactin can lead to osteoporosis, or increased risk of bone fractures.
Serious Side Effects
Some people may develop muscle related side effects while taking risperidone. The technical terms for these are â€śextrapyramidal effectsâ€ť (EPS) and â€śtardive dyskinesiaâ€ť (TD). Symptoms of EPS include restlessness, tremor, and stiffness. TD symptoms include slow or jerky movements that one cannot control, often starting in the mouth with tongue rolling or chewing movements.
Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase the risk of weight gain, high blood sugar, and high cholesterol. This is also known as metabolic syndrome. Your healthcare provider may ask you for a blood sample to check your cholesterol, blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c (a measure of blood sugar over time) while you take this medication.
SGAs have been linked with higher risk of death, strokes, and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in elderly people with behavior problems due to dementia.
All antipsychotics have been associated with the risk of sudden cardiac death due to an arrhythmia (irregular heart beat). To minimize this risk, antipsychotic medications should be used in the smallest effective dose when the benefits outweigh the risks. Your doctor may order an EKG to monitor for irregular heart beat.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare, life threatening adverse effect of antipsychotics which occurs in <1% of patients. Symptoms include confusion, fever, extreme muscle stiffness, and sweating. If any of these symptoms occur, contact your healthcare provider immediately.
Are there any risks of taking Risperdal® for long periods of time?
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a side effect that develops with prolonged use of antipsychotics. Medications such as risperidone have been shown to have a lower risk of TD compared to older antipsychotics, such as Haldol® (haloperidol). If you develop symptoms of TD, such as grimacing, sucking, and smacking of lips, or other movements that you cannot control, contact your healthcare provider immediately. All patients taking either first or second generation antipsychotics should have an Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) completed regularly by their healthcare provider to monitor for TD.
Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase the risk of diabetes, weight gain, high cholesterol, and high triglycerides. (See â€śSerious Side Effectsâ€ť section for monitoring recommendations.)
What other medications may interact with Risperdal®?
Risperidone may block the effects of agents used to treat Parkinson’s disease such as levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet®), bromocriptine, pramipexole (Mirapex®), ropinirole (Requip®), and others.
Risperidone may lower your blood pressure. Medications used to lower blood pressure may increase this effect and increase your risk of falling. Propranolol (Inderal®) is an example of this type of medication.
The following medications may increase the levels and effects of risperidone: divalproex sodium (Depakote®), fluoxetine (Prozac®), paroxetine (Paxil®), and verapamil (Calan®).
The following medications may decrease the levels and effects of risperidone: carbamazepine (Tegretol®, Equatro®), phenytoin (Dilantin®), phenobarbital, or rifampin (Rifadin®).
How long does it take for Risperdal® to work?
It is very important to tell your doctor how you feel things are going during the first few weeks after you start taking risperidone. It will probably take several weeks to see big enough changes in your symptoms to decide if risperidone is the right medication for you.
Antipsychotic treatment is generally needed lifelong for persons with schizophrenia. Your doctor can best discuss the duration of treatment you need based on your symptoms and illness.
College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists
Summary of FDA Black Box Warnings
Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia Related Psychosis