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Learn more about common mental health conditions that affect millions
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What happens at the intersection of mental health and one’s experience as a member of the Black diaspora? While the experience of being Black in America varies tremendously, there are shared cultural factors that play a role in defining mental health and supporting well-being, resiliency and healing.
Part of this shared cultural experience — like values, family connections, expression through spirituality or music, reliance on community networks and church — are enriching and can be great sources of strength and support.
However, another part of this shared experience is facing racism, discrimination and inequity that can significantly affect a person’s mental health. Being treated or perceived as “less than” because of the color of your skin can be stressful and even traumatizing. Additionally, members of the Black community face additional challenges accessing the care and treatment they need.
According to the Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, Black adults in the U.S. are more likely than white adults to report persistent symptoms of emotional distress, such as sadness, hopelessness, and feeling like everything is an effort. Black adults living below the poverty line are more than twice as likely to report serious psychological distress than those living above it.
Despite the needs, only one in three Black or African American adults who need mental health care receive it. According to the American Psychiatric Association’s Mental Health Facts for African Americans guide, African Americans are:
Socioeconomic factorscan make treatment options less available. In 2018, 11.5% of Black adults in the U.S. had no form of health insurance.
African Americans, like other communities of color, are more likely to experience socioeconomic disparities such as exclusion from health, educational, social and economic resources. These disparities may contribute to worse mental health outcomes.
Stigma around mental health conditions is still pervasive in our society. For many Black communities, discussing mental health can be a difficult subject. For example, one study showed that 63% of African Americans believe that a mental health condition is a personal sign of weakness. This stigma can act as a deterrent from people seeking mental health care when they need it.
Additionally, many people choose to seek support from their faith community rather than seeking a medical diagnosis.In many Black communities in the U.S., the church, mosque or other faith institution plays a central role as a meeting place and source of strength.
Faith and spirituality can help in the recovery process and be a part of a treatment plan. For example, spiritual leaders and faith communities can provide support and reduce isolation. However, they should not be the only option. Faith communities can sometimes be a source of distress and stigma if they are misinformed about mental health or do not know how to support individuals or families dealing with these conditions.
Provider Bias and Inequality of Care
African Americans have been, and continue to be, negatively affected by prejudice and discrimination in the health care system. Conscious or unconscious bias from providers and lack of cultural competence can result in misdiagnosis, inadequate treatment and mistrust of mental health professionals. These disparities can create a distrust in mental health professionals, which can prevent many from seeking or continuing treatment.
African Americans may be more likely to identify and describe physical symptoms related to mental health problems. For example, they may describe bodily aches and pains when talking about depression. A health care provider who is not culturally competent might not recognize these as symptoms of a mental health condition. Additionally, men are more likely to receive a misdiagnosis of schizophrenia when expressing symptoms related to mood disorders or PTSD.
When a person is experiencing challenges with their mental health, it is essential for them to receive quality and culturally competent care.
While we recommend going directly to a mental health professional, a primary care doctor is also a great place to start. A primary care doctor might be able to provide an initial mental health assessment and referral to a mental health professional if needed.
When meeting with a provider, it can be helpful to ask questions to get a sense of their level of cultural sensitivity. Providers expect and welcome questions from the individual since this helps them better understand what is important in their treatment. Here are some sample questions:
Whether you seek help from a primary care doctor or a mental health professional, you should finish your sessions with health professionals feeling heard and respected. You may want to ask yourself:
The relationship and communication between a person and their mental health provider is a key aspect of treatment. It’s very important for a person to feel that their identity is understood by their provider in order to receive the best possible support and care.
If finances are preventing you from finding help, contact a local health or mental health clinic or your local government to see what services you qualify for. You can find contact information online at findtreatment.samhsa.gov or by calling the National Treatment Referral Helpline at 800-662-HELP (4357)
Sharing Hope is an hour-long program to increase mental health awareness in African American communities by sharing the presenters’ journeys to recovery and exploring signs and symptoms of mental health conditions. The program also highlights how and where to find help.
"Sharing Hope: An African American Guide to Mental Health" provides mental health information in a sensitive manner through personal stories. Recovery is possible, and this booklet tells you where to find more information, seek help and be supportive. You can buy hard copies through the NAMI Bookstore.
There are a variety of mental health resources available for people of color, but we have provided a few examples below.
Please note: The resources included here are not endorsed by NAMI, and NAMI is not responsible for the content of or service provided by any of these resources.
Black Emotional and Mental Health Collective (BEAM)
Group aimed at removing the barriers that Black people experience getting access to or staying connected with emotional health care and healing. They do this through education, training, advocacy and the creative arts.
Black Men Heal
Limited and selective free mental health service opportunities for Black men.
Black Mental Health Alliance - (410) 338-2642
Provides information and resources and a “Find a Therapist” locator to connect with a culturally competent mental health professional.
Black Mental Wellness
Provides access to evidence-based information and resources about mental health and behavioral health topics from a Black perspective, as well as training opportunities for students and professionals.
Black Women’s Health Imperative
Organization advancing health equity and social justice for Black women through policy, advocacy, education, research and leadership development.
Boris Lawrence Henson Foundation
BLHF has launched the COVID-19 Free Virtual Therapy Support Campaign to raise money for mental health services provided by licensed clinicians in our network. Individuals with life-changing stressors and anxiety related to the coronavirus will have the cost for up to five (5) individual sessions defrayed on a first come, first serve basis until all funds are committed or exhausted.
Brother You’re on My Mind
An initiative launched by Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. and NIMHD to raise awareness of the mental health challenges associated with depression and stress that affect Black men and families. Website offers an online toolkit that provides Omega Psi Phi Fraternity chapters with the materials needed to educate fellow fraternity brothers and community members on depression and stress in Black men.
Ebony's Mental Health Resources by State
List of Black-owned and focused mental health resources by state as compiled by Ebony magazine.
Provides culturally sensitive self-care support and teletherapy for Black men and their families. Currently in pilot program available only to residents of MD, VA and DC. Residents of other states can join their waiting list and will be notified when Henry Health is available in their state.
Melanin and Mental Health
Connects individuals with culturally competent clinicians committed to serving the mental health needs of Black & Latinx/Hispanic communities. Promotes the growth and healing of diverse communities through its website, online directory and events.
Provides information on promoting mental health and developing positive coping mechanisms through a podcast, online magazine and online discussion groups.
POC Online Classroom
Contains readings on the importance of self care, mental health care, and healing for people of color and within activist movements.
Organization that provides mental wellness education, resource connection and community support for Black women.
Therapy for Black Girls
Online space dedicated to encouraging the mental wellness of Black women and girls. Offers listing of mental health professionals across the country who provide high quality, culturally competent services to Black women and girls, an informational podcast and an online support community.
The SIWE Project
Non-profit dedicated to promoting mental health awareness throughout the global Black community.
The Steve Fund
Organization focused on supporting the mental health and emotional well-being of young people of color.
Online community for Black women to seek support.
We recognize that many mental health conditions are being triggered as a result of the coronavirus, the economic crisis and repeated racist incidents and death.
Learn more about mental health conditions including anxiety disorders, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Understanding the context of racism and recent events
Understanding the context of racial inequality that impacts mental health
Understanding and addressing the social determinants of health that impact mental health
Books to Read
Call the NAMI Helpline at
text "NAMI" to 741741