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Beyond Jails: Community-Based Strategies for Public Safety

Publication Date: Nov 01 2021

Vera Institute of Justice

For decades, the United States has responded to social issues like mental health and substance use crises, chronic homelessness, and ongoing cycles of interpersonal violence with jail. This has disrupted the lives of millions of people—disproportionately harming Black and Indigenous people—without improving public safety. There’s a better way. Communities can instead invest in agencies and organizations that address these issues outside the criminal legal system. The proven solutions highlighted in this multimedia report look beyond jails to promote safe and thriving communities.
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Assessing the Impact of Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment Teams: A Review of Research

Publication Date: Jun 01 2021

Center for Police Research and Policy

This document provides a review of the research examining the implementation and impact of crisis resolution and home treatment teams. This review is organized into four primary sections. First, the definition and delivery of CRHTT programs are described. Next, the available research on the impact of CRHTTs is discussed. Then, stakeholders’ perceptions of CRHTTs are considered. Finally, a discussion of key research findings and implication for future research and practice is presented.
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Decoupling Crisis Response from Policing — A Step Toward Equitable Psychiatric Emergency Services

Publication Date: May 06 2021

The New England Journal of Medicine

Moving toward equitable emergency services
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Assessing the Impact of Mobile Crisis Teams: A Review of Research

Publication Date: Mar 01 2021

Center for Police Research and Policy

This document provides a review of the available research on the implementation and impact of MCTs. This review is organized into the following four sections. First, Section II describes the implementation of the mobile crisis team model. Next, Section III outlines the research on the impact of mobile crisis teams on increasing connection to services, reducing pressure on the mental health system, and promoting cost effectiveness. Then, Section IV describes stakeholders’ perceptions of mobile crisis teams, including benefits and challenges. Finally, Section V provides an overall discussion of available research and implications for research and practice.
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Assessing the Impact of Co-Responder Team Programs: A Review of Research

Publication Date: Mar 01 2021

Center for Police Research and Policy

This document provides a review of the available research regarding the implementation and impact of co-responder team programs across several communities. This review is organized into four sections. First, the definition and implementation of the co-responder team model are presented. Second, the impact of co-responder team programs on individuals in crisis, the criminal justice system, and the health care system is examined. Next, stakeholders’ perceptions of co-responder team programs and opinions on the elements that make these programs successful are considered. Finally, the implications for future research and practice are reviewed.
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Assessing the Impact of Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD): A Review of Research

Publication Date: Mar 01 2021

Center for Police Research and Policy

The Best Practice Guide reviews available research on the delivery and impact of police, behavioral health (BH), disability, and community responses to BH and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD)-related crisis incidents. The chapters of this guide present information on existing response models, identify evidence-informed best practices, and outline key lessons for the development and delivery of crisis response programs designed after these models.
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The Community Responder Model: How Cities Can Send the Right Responder to Every 911 Call

Publication Date: Oct 28 2020

Center for American Progress

This report details several existing programs that send nonpolice responders to handle such issues, including the Crisis Assistance Helping Out On The Streets (CAHOOTS) program in Eugene, Oregon.
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Cops, Clinicians, or Both? Collaborative Approaches to Responding to Behavioral Health Emergencies

Publication Date: Aug 01 2020

National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors

How a community responds to Behavioral Health (BH) emergencies is both a public health issue and social justice issue. Individuals in BH crisis often receive inadequate care in emergency departments (EDs), boarding for hours or days waiting for treatment. These individuals account for a quarter of police shootings and over 2 million jail bookings per year. Explicit and implicit bias magnify these problems for people of color. Growing bipartisan support for reform provides an unprecedented opportunity for meaningful change, but solutions to this complex issue will require comprehensive systemic approaches. As communities grapple with BH emergencies, the question isn’t whether law enforcement (LE) should respond to BH emergencies, but rather when, how, and with what support. This policy paper reviews best practices for law enforcement (LE) crisis response, outlines the components of a comprehensive continuum of crisis care that provides alternatives to LE involvement and ED utilization, and provides strategies for collaboration and alignment towards common goals. Finally, policy considerations regarding legal statutes, financing, data management, and stakeholder engagement are presented in order to assist communities interested in taking steps to build these needed solutions.
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National Guidelines for Behavioral Health Crisis Care Best Practice Toolkit

Publication Date: Feb 24 2020

SAMHSA

The National Guidelines for Crisis Care – A Best Practice Toolkit advances national guidelines in crisis care within a toolkit that supports program design, development, implementation and continuous quality improvement efforts. Itis intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, service providers, state and local leaders think through and develop the structure of crisis systems that meet community needs. This toolkit includes distinct sections for:
1. Defining national guidelines in crisis care;
2. Tips for implementing care that aligns with national guidelines; and
3. Tools to evaluate alignment of systems to national guidelines. 
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Behavioral Health Crisis and Diversion from the Criminal Justice System: A Model for Effective Community Response

Publication Date: Feb 01 2020

Arnold Ventures

Multiple leaders, champions, and stakeholders were interviewed, and programs and facilities in four communities observed, to inform this report highlighting promising practices of crisis diversion facilities
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Responding to Individuals in Behavioral Health Crisis Via Co-Responder Models: The Roles of Cities, Counties, Law Enforcement, and Providers

Publication Date: Jan 01 2020

National League of Cities

Details the various co-responder models available to city and county leaders. It reflects the growing interest and experimentation with co-response among jurisdictions that are part of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation’s Safety and Justice Challenge (SJC). In addition, the brief builds upon case studies in NLC’s recent series, Addressing Mental Health, Substance Use, and Homelessness, which explores emergency response and crisis stabilization strategies for cities
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Crisis Response Services for People with Mental Illnesses or Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature on Police-based and Other First Response Models

Publication Date: Oct 01 2019

Vera Institute of Justice

This summary of the published research to date provides a sampling of the types of police-based and related emergency response programs that have received some research attention, as well as the methodological approaches used and their results
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